Appraisals express value as the monetary relationship between properties and those who buy, sell or use those properties, as defined by the Uniform Standards of Professional Practice(USPAP). Fundamental to appraisal practice is the idea of comparing the subject of an assignment to other properties. The Sales Comparison Approach is the foundation of appraisal analysis: appraisers apply its techniques not only in that approach but also in the Cost Approach and Income Approach. Competent appraisers recognize the components by which buyers and sellers judge properties and then measure those components relative to a subject property.
The demand for all types of real estate in New England reflects region-wide economic factors. While the national economy influences geographical real estate values, some 2019 trends unique to New England are especially important to buyers and investors. These trends include labor characteristics, financial considerations, and population behavior.
Many residential appraisals don’t require the application of the cost approach, but there are situations where separate value opinions for land and improvements are necessary. In certain circumstances, the sales comparison approach is hampered by a shortage of sale properties that are truly comparable to the subject. Experienced appraisers recognize that a peculiar improved property sale may wholly reflect land value. They also know how to analyze outlier sales to support both vacant and improved property value opinions.
What is the process when private real estate is needed for public projects? ‘Eminent domain’ is the label frequently used to describe that process, and its basis lies in the U.S. Constitution. All U.S. states, including Massachusetts, have their respective statutes regarding the state taking private real property. Although eminent domain’s application has expanded in recent decades, it is now a contentious issue in many regions. This latest controversy means appraisers currently have a critical role in the eminent domain field, working for private property owners and public entities. When eminent domain plays a part in an appraisal assignment, both the appraiser and client need to be aware of the unique requirements of this kind of practice.
Most improved real properties and many vacant tracts can only be sold subject to existing easements. Appraisers identify existing easements and consider their effect on value whenever a market value definition is part of an assignment. Easements and rights-of-way often influence how real property can be used and may even affect a property’s ownership cost.
It’s standard procedure for most commercial lenders to request all three approaches to value—sales comparison approach, income approach, and cost approach—be undertaken during an appraisal. Usually, there is a stipulation that an approach may be excluded from the valuation if such an approach is deemed dispensable. This omission can be a point of conflict between lenders and appraisers, as the necessity of one or more approaches is debatable in certain situations. This post attempts to clarify the instances where the cost approach is either relevant or extraneous to a property’s valuation. Being able to prudently determine the importance (or otherwise) of the cost approach to valuation increases efficiency and fosters understanding between lenders and appraisers.
The Market Analysis section in an appraisal report contains precious information that directly influences the value of a property and also provides priceless insight into a myriad of data relating to the financial feasibility of a property. It is common for many prospective users of an appraisal report to ignore various sections of the report and focus solely on segments that indicate property value. The downside of this approach to valuations is that the reader, therefore, misses key insights into the subject market that can benefit the owner, buyer, seller, or lender.
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